Posted by on April 30, 2020

President’s Column 
The Problem with Mars and a Solution

Creating a viable colony on Mars will be the greatest challenge humanity has ever faced. Ignoring, for the moment, the dangers of traveling to the red planet, there remain many challenges once we have reached its surface.

Mars has no magnetic field and a thin atmosphere. As a result, the radiation reaching the surface is much higher than we receive on Earth. This means that the colony would need to be heavily shielded to protect the inhabitants. The most practical solution is to bury the colony, covering it with many feet of Martian soil.

The thin (about a hundred times thinner than ours) Martian atmosphere is primarily composed of unbreathable carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and argon. Anyone working on the surface would need to carry supplemental oxygen.

Mars is cold, very cold. The average temperature is around -81°F (-63°C). Heating the colony, vehicles, and workers is critical.

Dust is another problem. There are planet-wide dust storms that can last for months. Martian dust is very fine, like talcum powder. It can get into everything (Lunar dust intrusion became a problem during the Apollo mission.) It may also be toxic. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter detected high concentrations of perchlorates in the Martian soil. This may be a more difficult problem to solve, but technology similar to what is used today in industrial clean rooms could be applied.

There remains the biggest challenge, the elephant in the room that is rarely talked about because we have no control over it. Gravity.

The force of gravity on Mars is 38% that of the Earth. We are stuck with it. We have no way of changing that. What are the effects of this lower gravity? We don’t know, and we will not know until there are people living on Mars.

We do know that zero gravity is bad. It causes loss of bone and muscle mass and the loss of about 20% of blood volume. Without regular intensive exercise, an astronaut can lose up to 20% of muscle mass within 2 weeks. Bone mass can be lost at a rate of 1.5% a month, and this principally affects the spine, hip joints, and the legs. Bones can become brittle. The destruction of bone is responsible for an increase in calcium in the blood, resulting in a dangerous calcification of soft tissues and an increase in the possibility of kidney stones. The heart, like other muscles, also gradually degenerates, causing a decrease in blood pressure. Astronauts on the space station are required to spend at least 2 hours each day in intensive physical activity to reduce these probabilities.

These are some of the negative effects of zero gravity. How the partial gravity of Mars would affect the human body is unknown and unknowable until we get there.
In order to have a viable colony you can’t just bring in the entire population. There must be children. This is the biggest challenge. How would 38% of terrestrial gravity affect fertilization and the growth of a fetus? What about a child being raised on Mars? How would their bones develop, their heart, the entire complex biological spectrum that we call growth? We don’t know, and we can’t know.

The first child born on Mars, if fertilization and pregnancy can even take place, will be experiment number one.

If we cannot have children on Mars, is it over? Must we turn our back on the stars and bury our dreams of a space faring civilization? No! There is another alternative. That alternative is the Outpost.

We may not be able to have families on Mars but we can have them nearby. An Outpost-type habitat in Martian orbit would provide the necessary terrestrial conditions. Because of Mars’ lower gravity, commuting to the Martian surface would be relatively low-cost. Fuel could be refined from ice on the Martian moons.

Children could be raised in the equivalent of Earth gravity. They could play among the trees in the forests, swim in the lakes and fish in the streams. They would have access to libraries and museums. The sum total of human knowledge would be available in their homes. They could go on class trips to telescopically view Valles Marineris, the vast Grand Canyon of Mars — so long that on Earth, it would stretch all the way from California to New York, 2500 miles, over six miles deep and 125 miles wide.

A habitat such as the Outpost would carry the essence of our world and culture with us as we spread beyond the Earth.

As we move outward over the centuries and explore the universe we may never find another Earth. Humanity was born here. We evolved on its surface. A billion years of evolution have adapted us to our world. We will not find its kind again, but we can carry a semblance of it with us as we go. The Outpost and crafts like it will carry the seeds of our world, and however far into the infinite we travel, we will retain that which ties us to home and keeps us human.

Barry Greene

Educational Space

by Anyi Wen

Have you ever moved from one house or apartment to another? If you have, think about how many belongings you and your family had to bring from one place to the next, to fill up your new home. Now, imagine if you were moving into space. What are the absolute essentials you would want to bring with you? Some of the things you would have to leave behind due to space limitations may be created through the process of 3D printing.

What is 3D Printing?

3D printing involves using a digital file to print out a three-dimensional, solid object using a special kind of printer called a 3D printer. Instead of printing out something flat like a normal printer does, a 3D printer uses hundreds or even thousands of layers to achieve a finished product. Learn about how the process works in detail by visiting’s article, which is linked in the “For More Information” section.

Many of us may have limited experience with using a 3D printer, because the technology is so expensive. Normally, the printer and materials would be an investment of hundreds or thousands of dollars to start out. For casual use, free software such as TinkerCad is available. If you’re lucky, your school or local libraries may have some 3D printers for public use. Be prepared to sign up to be on a wait list or wait for 3D printing workshop events though, since you’re going to have some competition! 

What is 3D Printing used for?

3D printing has many applications, both for business and personal use. Some artists 3D-print parts for their projects like David C. Roy does for his kinetic sculptures. Other businesses 3D print dental molds, furniture, machine parts, stage props, and more. If there’s a market for something, chances are that it can be 3D printed or people are working on figuring out how to 3D print them. More and more industries have been using this technology because it cuts down on labor, time, and costs — leading to increased profit opportunities (Sculpteo).

For people looking to 3D print items for collection purposes or everyday use, there are online databases such as Thingiverse where creators share their designs for free. Check out some of the interesting designs people have come up with!


A Life-Saving Technology

Sure, 3D printed things are pretty neat — but did you know that research is going into ways to use the technology to save lives? Recent advances in medical applications have made 3D printed medicine possible since 2015, with some limitations. This proves useful in cases where sizes and dosages of pills have to be personalized for patients, and 3D printing exactly what they need makes the routine of taking medication more convenient (S. Huang and J. Huang).

To address the issue of donor organ shortages, scientists have been working on figuring out how to 3D-print organ tissues. One of their findings was that Earth’s gravity makes 3D printing “soft human tissue (such as blood vessels and muscle)” difficult, but these tasks are possible in space where the lower gravity allows the materials to maintain their structures (Listek). Astronauts at Techshot’s BioFabrication Facility (BFF) have recently been able to use a 3D bioprinter to create viable human adult cells and a model of a human meniscus, which is a cartilage structure located in our knees. This development will benefit those who need treatment for arthritis and knee pain. Years in the future, we may see functional 3D-printed human organs being used for transplants. 

COVID-19 Creations

People all over the world are thinking of creative 3D-printable inventions that can improve quality of life for those who are vulnerable to or doing essential work for the public through the coronavirus epidemic. Thingiverse users are taking on a “No Touch Challenge” by the site to design “a portable, 3D printable, multi-purpose no touch tool” that can keep frontline workers during the COVID-19 pandemic safe, posting their design ideas for items such as door openers and touchscreen styluses to the HackThePandemic page (MakerBot Thingiverse). Their forum includes designs for other useful safety gear as well, such as experimental face shields, masks, and accessories that can be added for comfort or accessibility.

Get Involved

Folks around the world are grateful for 12-year-old Quinn Callander’s recent work 3D-printing hundreds of ear guards from home and donating them to health-care workers and hospitals in need. This device hooks onto masks and is held in place around the user’s head, relieving the pressure from one’s ears. Designed for the comfort of workers who need to keep masks on for safety during long shifts, the ear guards are also extremely helpful for those who are physically unable to wear face masks that wrap around the ears (Ahearn). This bright student is making a positive difference during this difficult time, making safety gear more accessible and comfortable for as many people as he can.

Quinn’s inspiring story shows that anyone can make a difference with some creativity and dedication. Our organization, The High Frontier Outpost, is confident that students can think of some amazing ideas for how to make a space civilization in the future a reality.  We would be delighted to hear about your experiences with 3D-printing and ideas for what objects should be 3D-printed for life in space habitats. Can you brainstorm, create, or find designs for features you’d like to see as a space habitant? Email us with your thoughts at, and don’t forget to credit any sources that inspired you! 

P.S. We’re looking for a catchy space-themed name for the Education section of our newsletter. Please email us with suggestions! 

For More Information (n.d.). What is 3D Printing?
Ahearn, V. (2020, April 8). B.C. Boy Scout 3D prints ‘ear gears’ for COVID-19 masks.…
Huang, S. & Huang, J. (2018, January). 3D printing drugs: more precise, more personalised. PharmaTimes Magazine.…
Listek, V. (2020, April 9). Techshot’s Bioprinter Successfully Fabricates Human Menisci in Space.…
MakerBot Thingiverse. (n.d.) HackThePandemic.
Sculpteo. (n.d). What can 3D Printing do?
V., C. (2020, February 9). Can all drugs be 3D printed? 

What are Power Satellites?
by Roxanne Lee 
Have you ever seen a solar panel before? The black segmented rectangles convert sunlight into electricity, and are now a fairly common sight on rooftops or on the ground as solar farms have become increasingly frequent. To learn more about the mechanics behind generating electricity from sunlight, check out Scientific American’s article here. Solar panels on the ground may be common, but people have explored other ways to harvest solar energy. 
Schematic of Dr. Glaser’s solar power satellite. (Image Credit: US Patent Office)
Dr. Peter Glaser (1923-2014) was a physicist and private engineering consultant who regularly worked with NASA and even designed experiments for the 1969 Apollo mission. He wrote an article for Science magazine in 1968 that initially explored collecting solar energy directly from space via satellite (Yardley 2014). The satellite would orbit Earth and collect solar energy through panels and convert it to electricity. It would then convert the electricity into microwaves before beaming the microwaves to five-mile-long receiving antennae on Earth (Yardley 2014). The receiving antennae, or rectennae, would turn the microwaves back into electricity, which would then be transported and processed (Portree 2014). To learn more about how microwave signals can be converted into electricity, check out this article here. The satellites would orbit Earth in equatorial geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). This means that the satellite would move at the same speed that the earth rotates at the equator, and would only pass through Earth’s shadow a few minutes a year, letting them potentially harvest more solar energy than ground-based panels (Portree 2014).

Dr. Glaser got a patent for his idea in 1973, and soon after, NASA and the Department of Energy began a four-year study on the concept, which cost $19.6 million total (Portree 2014). As promising as the proposal was, several logistical issues prevented it from being fully executed in the 20th century. One such factor was the required size of the satellites. The Department of Energy estimated that in order for the project to be worth the cost, they would need 60 satellites in orbit with a collective generating capacity of 300 gigawatts (Portree 2014). A gigawatt is a large unit of measurement typically used for power plants; 1 gigawatt equals a billion watts, and can typically power 500,000 American homes. In order to produce such quantities of energy the satellites would have to be 10.5 kilometers long by 5.2 kilometers wide and would weigh 50,000 tons (Portree 2014). 

Artistic interpretation of a space freighter (Image Credit: Boeing/NASA)
How would you get a satellite that large into space? Initially, a massive cargo ship called a Space Freighter was proposed to carry the pieces for solar satellite construction into space. One thing that prevented it from being a viable plan was the freighter’s gross lift off weight (GLOW). GLOW is the weight of a craft taking off, composed of the weight of the craft itself and whatever it’s carrying. The Space Freighter would have weighed 11,000 tons. One of the heaviest space shuttles, the Apollo Saturn V, launched in 1967, had a GLOW of only 3,000 tons (Portree 2014). 

Depiction of what space satellite construction could look like (Image Credit: NASA)

The solar powered satellites would have to be primarily constructed in space. This creates even more new problems, such as the installation of the automotive technology necessary to build the satellites, and the housing and living quarters for all the people operating the technology. To learn more about the details of building solar power satellites in space, check out Wired’s article here. Such a thing wouldn’t be impossible, and with current developing technology it becomes more possible every day, but in the 1980s when the cost of oil came down, it was considered too expensive to pursue, and the research was discontinued.

Though solar power satellites were once deemed too expensive to be worth further research, that isn’t the case anymore. Things essential to solar satellite construction, like artificial intelligence and autonomous robots, have all vastly advanced since the 1970s, making the construction of satellites in space much cheaper than before. The proliferation of private companies focused on space travel, like SpaceX, are bringing the cost of space travel down. Over the next five years, the United States, China, and Japan plan to invest a collective $600 million into government space solar power investments. Whether the programs are funded the full amount or not, this is still a significant indicator of the current interest in solar powered satellites. Perhaps not given their fair due in their day, solar power satellites could yet see their day in the limelight.

For More Information 
David, L. (2014, June 9). Peter Glaser, Father of Solar-Power Satellite Idea, Dies at 90.
Locke, S. (2008, October 20). How does solar power work?
Portree, D. S. F. (2017, June 3). Solar Power Satellites: A Visual Introduction.
Wood, D.  (2014, March 6). Space-Based Solar Power.
Yardley, W. (2014, June 5). Peter Glaser, Who Envisioned Space Solar Power, Dies at 90.… 

Make Academic Progress Fun with Readorium

One of our primary efforts is encouraging students in the sciences. This involves providing the resources to advance students of all levels and abilities. We’re proud to be affiliated with Readorium, an award-winning program that engages students in grades 3-8 in strengthening their reading comprehension skills through the use of differentiated science texts (including some we’ve contributed to) and games.

We encourage educators to explore the program and see how learners will benefit from the personalized, fun, and thoroughly educating experience Readorium provides.

The creators of Readorium have generously made this program available for free to educators for the remainder of the school year. Let’s help all our students emerge stronger (readers) by the end of this difficult time.

When you register please mention High Frontier Outpost.

Building the Habitat: Materials and 3D Printing
by Barry Greene 
A giant habitat such as the Outpost cannot be built or launched from Earth. The many millions of tons of material would be impossible to lift into orbit. The rockets and fuel alone would deplete the industrial resources of our planet.
Where do we get the material for building the Outpost?
One of the major problems, but not the only one, of getting material from Earth is the energy required to lift it from the bottom of our gravity well into space. It would require oceans of fuel alone to be able to do it, not to mention the cost of innumerable vehicles.

The obvious solution is to utilize material that is already there. A medium-sized asteroid would provide most of the necessary construction supplies. We save the cost of the ships and the fuel with the expenditure of time. A trip to the asteroid belt, between Mars and Jupiter, could take several years. It would be no danger for the crew because there would be no crew. The ships would be controlled by artificial intelligence, expert systems operating as a swarm of robot miners. They would find a likely asteroid and analyze its composition, anchor to its surface, slowly alter its orbit, and eventually bring it to the location of the habitat’s construction. Look forward to reading more about asteroid mining in a future newsletter.  

At the construction location, the material would be refined. The bulk of materials used to build the Outpost would be steel, glass, and concrete. Steel can easily be produced. We know from meteorites that nickel-iron is abundant and a type of meteorite called a carbonaceous chondrite shows that carbon is also available in space. Steel consists of iron with added carbon. Other elements such as chromium are used to modify its properties.

One of the difficulties of working steel and iron is the formation of what is called scale. Scale is formed when the hot steel combines with oxygen. This so-called Mill Scale (because it is formed at a steel mill during manufacturing) must be removed before the steel is used. The best steel is vacuum cast. When it is melted in a vacuum, no oxygen can reach it; hence, no scale. The steel comes out shiny and clean.

To process the steel and space all you need is a large mirror to melt it. The vacuum is all around you. Glass is made from silicate minerals and these too are abundant. Our large mirror again serves the purpose.

The processing of asteroidal materials would yield a large amount of waste and slag. These could be crushed to form the raw material for concrete. There have been a number of experiments performed using simulated lunar regolith and Martian soil as a basis for concrete.  Experiments have been done on the International Space Station to see how concrete would form in zero gravity.

Concrete can be reinforced with both steel and glass fibers. The reinforcement gives the material tremendous tensile strength, and concrete provides compressive strength. To give an example, a cement block wall can be built by dry stacking the blocks using no mortar. The wall is then given a thin coating of fiberglass cement on both sides. The resulting structure is stronger than a conventionally built wall using normal mortar. Thirty years ago, I built such a wall using a commercially available glass-reinforced cement. Despite considerable pressure from the soil bank it retains, it remains intact to this day.

Glass-reinforced concrete can be extruded, which means it can be deposited by 3D printing. Houses have already been built this way. Metal can also be 3D-printed, so the metal components can likewise be fabricated. 

What would the printers be like?
Building the habitat will take a new kind of printer, one that would  be able to hold its position in zero gravity against the reaction to the thrust of extruding material. It would be able to move on the surface of, and inside, the habitat modules. It should be able to deposit material and then determine its quality. The robot would need to perform these tasks with no human control. Such printers do not yet exist, but we are very close.
3D printers mounted on mobile robot bodies have already been used to make large structures. There are some that can print multiple materials and monitor the quality of the print. Autonomous robots exist today, for example self-driving cars. 

In the ISS, Made In Space has their flagship Additive Manufacturing Facility (AMF) on board to produce over 200 tools, parts, and assets in orbit.
When we are ready to build the habitat, all these systems will be far more advanced. The basic economic forces advancing technology will ensure that progress will be made in these fields. When we need them, they will be ready. 
Building The Outpost
Imagine, if you will, that you were at the Habitat construction location observing a module being built. Large robots are anchored to the frames of the structure, crawling slowly over the surface and depositing layers of vacuum-sealed concrete, while swarms of mobile robots hover nearby supplying them with material.

You move inside the module. This one is residential. Constant motion surrounds you,  hundreds of robots of all sizes and types intent on their tasks. It looks like some unearthly city, its residents, machines, not people. You see apartments with terraces and another area that will become a small park, with pits soon to be filled with soil and trees. There is a playground for children and a small stage where plays or concerts may be performed.

Inside a residential structure, there are more robots. A robot finishes a wall and pulls back. Suddenly, the wall rapidly cycles through a spectrum of colors and shows a test pattern. Satisfied, the robot turns to the next wall.

The apartment is large, but all the apartments are large. On Earth it is necessary to cram as many people as possible into a plot of ever more expensive real estate. Here, we make our own. If more space is needed, we build it.

Large sections of the Outpost are already occupied. Labs, factories, and residences are already operational. The vast interior is still unfinished. It can’t be landscaped until the Outpost’s shell is completed and sealed to hold an atmosphere. Some modules are greenhouses growing the trees and plants that will fill the interior.

This is a future that can happen. Help us design it. What do you think we need? If you were living in The Outpost what would you like to have? Let us know through our contact: 

Interested in Learning More?
We recommend visiting any of these websites if you’d like to learn more about some of the recent technologies being developed that have the potential to become applicable in the construction of space habitats.
Awesometech. (2020, March 7). Boston Dynamics’ amazing robots Atlas and Handle.
Evans, J. (2019, September 2). 3D printers on the final frontier: Made In Space is building satellites that build themselves.…
Franzen, C. (2019, September 23). 3D Printing is Going to Space.…
Listek, V. (2019, May 31). Penn State Creates a Breakthrough 3D Printing Technology for the NASA Housing Challenge.…
Listek, V. (2020, February 28). Long Beach: The New Site for Relativity Space’s 3D Printed Rockets.…
O’Neal, B. (2019, September 8). 3D Printing in Space: Metal Printing in µ‐Gravity Shows Promise.…
O’Neal, B. (2019, December 31). 3D Printing Foam Concrete: Investigating Production Techniques.…
O’Neal, B. (2020, March 20). Structures to 3D Print New Systems for Self-Healing in Cement.…
O’Neal, B. (2020, March 23). Virginia Tech: Analyzing Fresh Mix Properties of 3D Printed Cementitious Materials.…
O’Neal, B. (2020, April 20). Life in Space: Algae-Based 3D Printing Ink to Create Habitats & Other Basics.…
VideoFromSpace. (2019, October 30). AI Spacefactory Builds Homes For Earth and Space!

Closing Words

Humankind evolved along with the environment on this planet. We are not just living in the environment we are a part of it. If we destroy our environment we destroy ourselves.
Throughout history we have treated our planet merely as a resource to be exploited. We know how to take from our world but we have not yet learned how to give back. It is like a closed test tube in an experiment and we cannot learn how to repair the world from within the experiment. It is necessary to create a place where we can learn how to save our world, where errors in judgment will not kill millions.
The knowledge we will gain creating a stable environment in The Outpost may well be the knowledge that we need to restore our damaged world. We can take some steps for restoration now but even more important is to apply the primary stricture of a doctor’s Hippocratic Oath: “Above all do no harm”. With that thought in mind we wish to encourage everyone reading this to safely, in this time of crisis, support Earth Day and the principles that guide it.
“There is no way back into the past. The choice, as H. G. Wells once said, is the Universe – or nothing. Though men and civilizations may yearn for rest, for the Elysian dream of the Lotus Eaters, that is a desire that merges imperceptibly into death. The challenge of the great spaces between the worlds is a stupendous one, but if we fail to meet it, the story of our race will be drawing to its close. Humanity will have turned its back on the still untrodden heights and will be descending again the long slope that stretches, across a thousand million years of time, down to the primeval sea.”

– Arthur C. Clarke

Around the Cosmos
Share Your Artwork
We’ll be collecting our readers’ artwork and creative pieces to present them in upcoming issues. This can be anything from paintings, drawings, poems, short stories, music, or film/animation. Show us your creativity of bringing science and art together! Submit your art to
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Are you or someone you know interested in joining our team? Use our volunteer form to notify us!

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